Health Science – Es Farmacia Online Thu, 02 Dec 2021 04:34:28 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Health Science – Es Farmacia Online 32 32 Efficacy of Covishield in fully vaccinated 63 pc: Study Thu, 02 Dec 2021 03:37:40 +0000

The effectiveness of Covishield’s vaccine against COVID-19 infection in fully vaccinated individuals was found to be 63% between April and May, when the second wave was at its peak in India, according to a new study.

It was published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases and included a comparison between 2,379 cases of confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and 1,981 controls.

The vaccine’s efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection in fully vaccinated individuals was found to be 63%.

The Ministry of Science and Technology shared the study in an official statement.

More importantly, the scientists also observed that the spike-specific T cell responses were conserved against both the delta variant and wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Such cellular immune protection could compensate for the decrease in l ‘humoral immunity against virus variants and prevent moderate to severe illness and the need for hospitalization,’ the study said.

The ministry said the study provides comprehensive data on the vaccine’s real-world efficacy and immunological response to vaccination that should help guide policy.

A multi-institutional team of Indian researchers led by the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI) evaluated the actual effectiveness of the Covishield vaccine during the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection between April and May 2021, in India.

They also evaluated neutralizing activity and cellular immune responses against the variants in healthy vaccinated individuals to understand the mechanisms of protection.

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An FDA panel to discuss Merck’s COVID-19 pill on Tuesday; here is what you need to know Tue, 30 Nov 2021 12:02:31 +0000

A Food and Drug Administration advisory group will meet on Tuesday to discuss a possible emergency authorization for the use of Merck’s antiviral drug to treat COVID-19.

The pill, developed in partnership with Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, aims to reduce serious illness and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Merck asked the FDA in October to approve the drug, named molnupiravir, for adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 infections who are at risk of hospitalization.

What did Merck’s updated research on the pill show?

On Friday, Merck released updated data, based on 1,433 unvaccinated patients, which showed its drug reduced hospitalizations and deaths by 30%. This is a significant decrease from preliminary data released last month, showing a 50% reduction based on 775 unvaccinated patients. Merck’s full data has not yet been published or peer reviewed.

The new findings have dampened some of the enthusiasm surrounding the oral treatment, which, if approved for emergency use, would be the first such antiviral pill used to treat COVID-19.

In its analysis of the pill, the FDA said scientists had identified some potential risks, including possible toxicity to developing fetuses and birth defects. The FDA will ask the advisory committee if the drug should ever be administered during pregnancy, the Associated Press reported.

The drug will not be used in children, the FDA said.

What do we know about another COVID-19 pill developed by Pfizer?

Rival pharmaceutical company Pfizer is also working on an antiviral pill, called paxlovid, to treat the virus. Initial results from the study of around 1,200 patients showed the drug reduced hospitalizations and deaths by 89%.

Pfizer has submitted paxlovid for FDA review, although it is not clear when the agency will review the drug. Like Merck, Pfizer has yet to release full data or subject it to peer review.

How would the COVID-19 pill help hospitals?

Oral antiviral treatment for COVID would provide an additional tool for healthcare providers trying to reduce the strain the virus places on hospitals.

“Right now, all of our proven effective therapies are drugs or IV treatments that we give to hospitalized people, or monoclonal antibodies, which have been shown to be very effective and effective in treating outpatients, but require an infusion. IV, ”said Dr. James Cutrell, associate professor of medicine in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

How do Merck and Pfizer COVID-19 pills work?

During clinical trials, patients receiving Merck treatment took a total of 40 tablets over the five days. Patients receiving Pfizer treatment took a total of 30 tablets over five days. Treatments should be started within five days of symptom onset.

Both drugs prevent the COVID-19 virus from replicating, but they do so at different points in the replication process.

Merck’s pill interferes with the way the virus copies its genetic material, causing mutations. “Eventually there are so many mistakes or mutations created that the virus somehow dies,” Cutrell said.

Pfizer’s treatment operates in a different part of the viral life cycle, instead interfering with an enzyme needed for replication. Treatment consists of two components, an experimental molecule and a medicine called ritonavir, which has been used in HIV patients before.

The molecule interacts with the virus while ritonavir prevents other enzymes from destroying it, Becker’s Hospital Review reported.

What are the limits of COVID-19 pills?

The new drugs, while potentially useful in preventing serious illnesses caused by COVID-19, have limitations, said Catherine Troisi, associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston.

Many times people infected with COVID-19 don’t know they have the virus until several days after symptoms start, meaning antiviral pills are unlikely to be effective by the time these people are treated.

Access to pills is also a concern. “If you have your primary care doctor and you can get it right away, then that’s great,” Troisi said. “But a lot of people don’t have that.”

If either pill is cleared for emergency use, there will still be questions about cost and availability, Cutrell said.

“These are all important issues that we will watch out for when the FDA panel looks at the data and then once we see what decision is made,” he said.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

Left to right: Nurses Kelsey O'Meara, Noelle Hackfeld and Joanna Pless examined the oxygen levels of an intubated COVID-19 patient at the Tactical Care Unit at Parkland Hospital on February 10, 2021 in Dallas .
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New variant of Covid: what scientists know about Omicron Sat, 27 Nov 2021 02:45:48 +0000

Scientists still do not know how effective the vaccines will be against the new variant reported by a team in South Africa, which has mutations that could resist neutralization. Only several dozen cases have been fully identified to date in South Africa, Botswana, Hong Kong, Belgium and Israel.

The new variant, designated by the World Health Organization as a “variant of concern” known as Omicron, exhibits a “very unusual constellation of mutations”, with more than 30 in the spike alone, according to Tulio. de Oliveira, director of the KwaZulu-Natal Research and Innovation Sequencing Platform.

The spike protein is the primary target for human antibodies that the immune system produces to fight coronavirus infection. So many mutations have raised concerns that the Omicron tip might escape antibodies produced by a previous infection or vaccine.

The variant shares similarities with the Lambda and Beta variants, which are associated with an innate escape of immunity, said Richard Lessells, an infectious disease specialist at the KwaZulu-Natal Research and Innovation Sequencing Platform. .